HUBUNGAN TROMBOSITOPENIA DENGAN DERAJAT ANEMIA PADA PASIEN MALARIA FALCIPARUM DI RSUD PANGLIMA SEBAYA PASER

  • Elisa Purba Program Studi Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Mulawarman
  • Carta Laboratorium Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Mulawarman
  • Verry Laboratorium Parasitologi, FakuItas Kedokteran, Universitas MuIawarman
Keywords: Malaria;, Falciparum Malaria;, Anemia;, Thrombocytopenia;

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Malaria is an infectious disease which is considered as a health issue in Indonesia. Plasmodium falciparum, a type of plasmodium species, causes the worst manifestation and considerably high mortality rate of patients with malaria. Thrombocytopenia and anemia are two most common hematological abnormalities observed in patients with malaria. Several studies have reported that thrombocytopenia and anemia are associated with level of malaria. This study aims to find the correlation between thrombocytopenia and anemia level among patients with falciparum malaria at RSUD Panglima Sebaya Paser. It used analytical observational method with cross sectional design. The subjects were selected based on patient’s medical record at Panglima Sebaya Paser Hospital Installation from 2015 to 2019. A total of 40 patients with falciparum malaria were divided into 20 patients without complications and 20 patients with complications. The research data were tested using chi square bivariate analysis. The results showed that 37 patients (92.5%) were diagnosed with thrombocytopenia and 29 patients (72.5%) were diagnosed with anemia. Chi-square analysis result toward falciparum malaria patients without any complications was p=0,438 (p<0,05) which statistically indicated that thrombocytopenia and anemia level had no correlation. Meanwhile, chi-square analysis toward falciparum malaria patients with complications was p=0,024 (p<0,05). Next, correlation test was carried out and resulted in r = 0,525. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that there is a moderately significant correlation between thrombocytopenia and level of anemia among falciparum malaria patients with complications at RSUD Panglima Sebaya Paser.

References

1)Arsin,A, A, (2012). Malaria di Indonesia Tinjauan Aspek Epidemiologi. Makassar. MASAGENA PRESS
2)Bakhubaira S. (2013). Hematological Parameters in Severe ComplicatedPlasmodium falciparum Malaria among Adults in Aden. Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology, 30(4), 394–399. https://doi.org/10.4274/Tjh.2012.0086
3)Bisoffi.Zeno , at all. (2015). Early hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly and risk factors for evolution into the full-blown syndrome: a single- centre, retrospective, longitudinal study. Malaria Journal. Bisoffi et al. Malar J (2015) 14:487 DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-1015-6
4)Bouyou-Akotet, MK, Dzeing-Ella, A., Kendjo, E. dkk. Dampak infeksi Plasmodium falciparum terhadap frekuensi anemia sedang sampai berat pada anak di bawah 10 tahun di Gabon. Malar J 8, 166 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-8-166
5)CDC. (2018) About Malaria Rettrieved February 3, 2021
6)Daniel A. Lampah, Tsin W. Yeo, Michael Malloy, Enny Kenangalem, Nicholas M. Douglas, Donny Ronaldo, Paulus Sugiarto, Julie A. Simpson, Jeanne Rini Poespoprodjo, Nicholas M. Anstey, Ric N. Price, Severe Malarial Thrombocytopenia: A Risk Factor for Mortality in Papua, Indonesia, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 211, Issue 4, 15 February 2015, Pages 623634, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu487
7)Dinas Kesehatan Kaltim. (2018). Profil Kesehatan Kaltim. Samarinda
8)Duong, MC, Pham, OKN, Nguyen, PT dkk. Prediktor kegagalan pengobatan malaria plasmodium falciparum di Vietnam: studi retrospektif pusat tunggal 4 tahun. Malar J 20, 205 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03720-3
9)Fowkes FJ, Boeuf P, Beeson JG. Immunity to malaria in an era of declining malaria transmission. Parasitology. 2016 Feb;143(2):139-53. doi: 10.1017/S0031182015001249. Epub 2016 Jan 7. PMID: 26741253.
10)Gunawan, C. A. (2018). Patogenesis Malaria Berat. In P. N Harijanto, C.A Gunawan, & A. Nugrohi (Eds.) Malaria Tata Laksana Klinis & Terapi (3rd ed., pp. 8-23). Jakarta
11)Gupta, NK, Bansal, SB, Jain, UC, & Sahare, K. (2013). Studi trombositopenia pada pasien malaria. Parasitologi tropis , 3 (1), 58–61. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5070.113914
12)Hanson, J., Phu, NH, Hasan, MU dkk. Implikasi klinis trombositopenia pada orang dewasa dengan malaria falciparum berat: analisis retrospektif. BMC Med 13, 97 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0324-5
13)Harijanto, P.N. (2015). Malaria In S. Setiati, I. Alwi, A.W Sudoyo, M. Simadibrata, B. Setiyohadi, & A. F. Syam (Eds.) Buku Ajar Penyakit Dalam (6th ed., pp 595-611). Jakarta : InternalPublishing.
14)Harijanto, P. N. (2018b). Manifestasi Klinik Malaria Ringan. In P. N Harijanto, C.A Gunawan, & A. Nugrohi (Eds.) Malaria Tata Laksana Klinis & Terapi (3rd ed., pp. 59-75). Jakarta : EGC
15)Haroen, H.(2018). Trombositopenia Pada Malaria. In P. N Harijanto, C.A Gunawan, & A. Nugrohi (Eds.) Malaria Tata Laksana Klinis & Terapi (3rd ed., p. 51). Jakarta : EGC
16)Hasugian, A. R., Wibowo, H., & Tjitra, E.(2018). Hubungan Trombositopenia, Parasitemia serta Mediator Pro dan Anti Inflamsi pada Infeksi Malria, Timika 2010. Media Litbangkes, 28(3), 183-190.
17)Hoffbrand, P ., & Moss, P. A. .(2013). Kapita Selekta Hematologi (6th ed.; S. Ferdy, ed.). Jakarta ; EGC
18)Hoffmeister, B., Aguilar Valdez, A.D. Hypertension is associated with an increased risk for severe imported falciparum malaria: a tertiary care hospital based observational study from Berlin,Germany. Malar J 18, 410 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-3007-4
19)Jairajpuri, Z. S.,  1,Rana, S., Hassan, M. J., Nabi, F., Jetle, S., (2014). An Analysis of Hematological Parameters as a Diagnostic test for Malaria in Patients with Acute Febrile Illness: An Institutional Experience. National Library of Madicine, 1222. https;//doi.org/10.5001/omj.2014.04
20)Kar NP, Kumar A, Singh OP, Carlton JM, Nanda N. A review of malaria transmission dynamics in forest ecosystems. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Jun 9;7:265. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-265. PMID: 24912923; PMCID: PMC4057614.
21)Kemenkes RI. (2017). Buku Saku Penatalaksanaan Kasus Malaria. Jakarta, I, 38
22)Lacerda, M., Mourao, M., Coelho, H. & Santos, J. 2011, 'Thrombocytopenia in malaria', Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, vol. 106, no. 1, hal. 52–63. doi: 10.1590/S0074-02762011000900007
23)Mwandagalirwa, MK, Levitz, L., Thwai, KL et al.Karakteristik individu dan rumah tangga penderita malaria Plasmodium falciparum di lokasi dengan berbagai endemisitas di Provinsi Kinshasa, Republik Demokratik Kongo. Malar J 16, 456 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-017-2110-7
24)Natalia, D. (2015). Peranan Trombosit Dalam Patogenesis Malaria. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas, 37(3), 219. https;//doi.org/10.22338/mka.v37.i3.p219-225.2014
25)Nugroho A.(2015) Patogenesis Malaria Berat. In Harijanto PN, Nugroho A, Gunawan CA, (Eds). Malari dari Molekuler ke Klinis (2nd ed., pp. 38-61).Jakarta:EGC
26)O ' Sullivan JM, Preston RJ, O ' Regan N, HAI ' Emerging roles for hemostatic dysfunction in malaria pathogenesis. Blood.. 2016; 127 (19): 2281-2288.doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-11-636464
27)Punnath, K., Dayanand, K. K., Chandrashekar, V. N., Achur, R. N., Kakkilaya, S. B., Ghosh, S. K., …Gowda, D.C. (2019) Association Between Inflamatory Cytokin Levels and Trombocytopenia during Plasmodium falcifarum and P. vivax Infactions in South-Westren CoastalRegion Of India. Malaria Reasrech and Treatment, 2019, 1-10https;//doi.org/10.1155/2019/4296523
28)Rivera-Correa, J ., & Rodriguez, A. (2019). Autoimune Anemia in Malaria. Trends in Parasitology, 36(2), 91-97https;//doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.12.002
29)Roberts, CH, Armstrong, M., Zatyka, E. dkk. Pengangkutan gametosit pada pelancong yang terinfeksi Plasmodium falciparum . Malar J 12, 31 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-31
30)Rotty, L., (2018) Anemia Pada Malaria. In P. N Harijanto, C.A Gunawan, & A. Nugrohi (Eds.) Malaria Tata Laksana Klinis & Terapi (3rd ed., pp. 59-75). Jakarta : EGC
31)Siagian, Loly R. D., Lumbantoruan, V.M., Hasanah, N. Sihotang, F. A. & Gunawan, C. (2019) Assiociation of Trombocytopenia with splenomegaly in malaria patients in East Kalimantan: A cross-sectional, restropective study. F1000Research,7, 1832https;//doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16606.2 Soedarto.(2011).Malaria.Jakarta: Sagung Seto
32)Surve, K. M., Kulkarni, A. S., Rathod, S. g., & Bindu , R. S. (2017). Study of haematological paramaters in malaria. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5(6), 2552. https;//doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20172446
33)White, N. J. (2018). Anemia and malaria 1 1 Medical and Healt Sciences 1108 Medical Microbiology 11 Medical and Healt Sciences 1103. Clinical Sciences. Malaria Journal, 17(1), 1-17. https;//doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2509-9
34)WHO (2020) World Malaria Report. 2020
Zoleko Manego, R., Koehne, E., Kreidenweiss, A. et al.  Deskripsi infeksi Plasmodium falciparum di Gabon tengah menunjukkan kepadatan parasit yang tinggi di antara remaja dan orang dewasa yang bergejala. Malar J 18, 371 (2019).https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-3002-9
Published
2021-10-05
Section
Articles
Abstract = 12 times
PDF downloaded = 15 times